A smart city has embedded “smartness” into its operations, and is guided by the overarching goal of becoming more sustainable and resilient. It analyzes, monitors and optimizes its urban systems, be they physical (e.g. energy, water, waste, transportation and polluting emissions) or social (e.g. social and economic inclusion, governance, citizen participation), through transparent and inclusive information feedback mechanisms. It commits to continuous learning and adaptation, and through the application of systems thinking, aspires to improve its inclusivity, cohesion, responsiveness, governance, and the performance of its social, economic and physical systems.